The Chartered Bank began when Queen Victoria granted a Royal Charter to Scotsman James Wilson in 1853. Chartered opened its first branches in Mumbai, Kolkata and Shanghai in 1858, followed by Hong Kong and Singapore in 1859. The Bank started issuing banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar in 1862. The Standard Bank was a British bank founded in the Cape Province of South Africa in 1862 by Scot, John Paterson. Having established a considerable number of branches, Standard was prominent in financing the development of the diamond fields of Kimberley from 1867 and later extended its network further north to the new town of Johannesburg when gold was discovered there in 1885. Half the output of the second largest gold field in the world passed through The Standard Bank on its way to London. Standard expanded widely in Africa over the years, but from 1883 to 1962 was formally known as the Standard Bank of South Africa. In 1962 the bank changed its name to Standard Bank Limited, and the South African operations were formed into a separate subsidiary which took the parent bank's previous name, Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd. Both banks acquired other smaller banks along the way and spread their networks further. In 1969, the banks decided to merge and to counterbalance their network by expanding in Europe and the United States, while continuing expansion in their traditional markets in Asia and Africa. In 2000, Standard Chartered acquired Grindlays Bank from ANZ, increasing its presence in private banking and further expanding its operations in India and Pakistan. Standard Chartered retained Grindlays' private banking operations in London and Luxembourg, as well as the subsidiary in Jersey, all of which were integrated into its own private bank. This now serves high-net-worth customers in Hong Kong, Dubai, and Johannesburg under the name Standard Chartered Grindlays Offshore Financial Services. On 15 April 2005, the bank acquired Korea First Bank, beating HSBC in the bid. The bank has since rebranded the branches as SC First Bank. Standard Chartered completed the integration of its Bangkok branch and Standard Chartered Nakornthon Bank in October, renaming the new entity Standard Chartered Bank (Thailand). Standard Chartered also formed strategic alliances with Fleming Family & Partners to expand private wealth management in Asia and the Middle East, and acquired stakes in ACB Vietnam, Travelex, American Express Bank (Bangladesh) and Bohai Bank (China). The largest shareholder, Khoo Teck Puat, died in 2004; and two years later, on 28 March 2006, the Singapore state-owned private investment firm, Temasek, became the bank's largest shareholder, when it bought the 11.55% stake held by the estate of billionaire Khoo Teck Puat. Standard Chartered announced an agreement on 27 April 2010 to buy the African custody business from Barclays PLC. On 13 May 2010, Standard Chartered PLC launched the first-ever Indian Depository Receipt “IDR” offer. On 17 June 2010, Standard Chartered Bank and the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) strengthened their strategic partnership. Hong Kong has been identified as a potential pilot region for the two banks' co-operation journey. The two banks' declared aim is to co-operate to provide their corporate and individual customers with world class financial markets products. A joint co-operation committee will be formed by both banks to drive the strategic direction of the partnership. The committee was to be co-chaired by Peter Sands, CEO of Standard Chartered, and Zhang Yun, President of ABC. In December 2010, Standard Chartered was recognized as the Global Bank of the Year in The Banker's Bank of the Year 2010 awards. Standard Chartered also was named The Banker's inaugural winners of the Global and European Transaction Bank of the Year awards in September 2014, largely "on the basis of its work in emerging markets, particularly Asia". In January 2015, the company announced that it was exiting the money-losing equity capital markets business completely becoming one of the first global banks to do so. In November that year, the bank announced that it would cut 15,000 jobs, including one thousand senior jobs, "from managing director up to board executives". The cuts followed a change of CEO after profit warnings and money laundering fines in the first half of the year.
Today. Standard Chartered PLC is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London, England. It operates a network of more than 1,200 branches and outlets (including subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures) across more than 70 countries and employs around 87,000 people. It is a universal bank with operations in consumer, corporate and institutional banking, and treasury services. Despite its UK base, it does not conduct retail banking in UK, and around 90% of its profits come from Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Standard Chartered has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £24.4 billion as of 4 April 2017, the 28th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. It has secondary listings on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India. Its largest shareholder is the Government of Singapore-owned Temasek Holdings.